The Division of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
The Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, USA.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a leading cause of chronic liver disease that can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer, and end-stage liver disease, and it is linked to elevated cardiovascular- and cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Insulin resistance related to metabolic syndrome is the main pathogenic trigger that, in association with adverse genetic, lifestyle, and other factors, precipitates the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Biochemical markers and radiological imaging, along with liverbiopsy in selected cases, help in the disease's diagnosis and prognostication. Weight loss is the cornerstone treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; however, it is difficult to achieve and maintain, so pharmacotherapy was developed. The remarkable evolution in understanding disease pathogenesis has led to the development of new medical therapies and even the modification of currently available ones. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.