This article reviews the prevalence, disease burden, genotype distribution, and transmission patterns of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus in the 6 World Health Organization regions. The global epidemiology of hepatitis B and C demonstrates a predominantly declining prevalence of the diseases. Improvement in the control of hepatitis B has been largely achieved with implementation of a more universal HBV vaccine program, although a large gap still remains in the effort toward global prevention of hepatitis B. The transmission of hepatitis C has been greatly impacted by mandatory screening of blood donors in most countries in the world, although intravenous drug use continues to be a major source of infection. Public education regarding the risks of exposure to infected paraphernalia as well as household items such as razors is necessary in the continuing effort to curb this disease.