Hepatitis B is a DNA virus affecting hundreds of millions of individuals worldwide. As the clinical sequelae of cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer are increasingly recognized to be related to viral levels, the impetus increases to offer treatment to those previously not treated. With the development of more robust antivirals with reasonable safety profiles, long-term treatment is becoming more common. The oral nucleos(t)ide analogs have become the preferred first-line therapies for most genotypes of hepatitis B. Five are now available, all with different potencies and resistance profiles. Long-term data spanning several years are now available for most compounds in this arena. This article focuses on the common natural variants and those secondary to nucleos(t)ide therapy, as well as diagnostic methods to detect resistance.