Viral hepatitis was first identified as an occupational hazard for health care workers more than 60 years ago. For the past few decades, hepatitis B has been one of the most significant occupational infectious risks for health care providers. With the increasing prevalence of hepatitis C infections around the world, occupational transmission of this flavivirus from infected patients to their providers has also become a significant concern. Several factors influence the risk for occupational blood-borne hepatitis infection among health care providers, among them: the prevalence of infection among the population served, the infection status of the patients to whom workers are exposed (ie, the source patient's circulating viral burden), the types and frequencies of parenteral and mucosal exposures to blood and blood-containing body fluids, and whether the patient or provider has been immunized with the hepatitis B vaccine. This article reviews patient-to-provider, patient-to-patient, and provider-to-patient transmission of hepatitis B and C in the health care setting. Current prevention strategies, precautions, and guidelines are discussed.