In the last few years, much progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Due to these advances, HCC is no longer regarded as a disease with an extremely poor prognosis and has become the focus of some of the most active basic and clinical research in recent years. The most important advance is possibly the demonstration that sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor with antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties, is an effective treatment, able to increase survival in patients with advanced-stage HCC. This increased survival has demonstrated that these drugs, which act selectively on the molecular pathways involved in tumoral progression, can be effective in the treatment of HCC and has opened the door to the evaluation of these molecular agents, alone or in combination, in HCC. The present article provides a review of the treatment of advanced-stage HCC, with special emphasis on the distinct agents that are currently under evaluation.