Cirrhosis of the liver is a rising epidemic in the United States, affecting 2 out of every 1,000 adults. It is responsible for the deaths of more than 27,000 people each year. The primary diseases that underlie cirrhosis include viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Monitoring the extent of fibrosis and aggressively treating the underlying disease is essential for maintaining quality of life and preventing the complications of cirrhosis. As patients progress toward end-stage liver disease, the most common complications include portal hypertension, the development of esophageal varices, and hepatic encephalopathy. Esophageal varices can lead to hemorrhaging, a dangerous complication that is fatal in 30-50% of patients during the first occurrence. Hepatic encephalopathy is another serious complication of end-stage liver disease, as it significantly reduces patient quality of life and places heavy economic and caregiving burdens upon the patient's family. In this clinical roundtable monograph, the latest advances in the monitoring of liver disease and the management of portal hypertension and hepatic encephalopathy are discussed.