Red Bank Veterinary Hospital.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurologic syndrome resulting from the synergistic action of multiple pathologic factors, which are discussed in a companion article. Early recognition of the clinical signs can improve treatment outcome, as well as reduce the incidence of risk factors. Multimodal treatment of HE is usually indicated. Studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of HE in people may shed new light on further treatment modalities in small animal patients.