Department of Hepatology, Saint Luc Hospital, CHUM, Montréal, Canada Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology Hospital Saint Joseph, Marseilles, France.
Summary. Worldwide, 50-70 million subjects are infected with an hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6. In these patients, the combination of PEG-INF-α and ribavirin remains the currently approved standard-of-care treatment. The identification of different potential therapeutic targets in the HCV life cycle has led to the development of both direct antiviral agents (DAAs) and reagents targeting host functions essential for viral replication. DAAs comprise so far first-generation, second-wave and second-generation NS3/4A protease inhibitors (PIs), nucleos(t)ide (NIs) and non-nucleoside inhibitors of the NS5B RNA polymerase and NS5A complex inhibitors. The main host-protein-directed antiviral agents are cyclophilin inhibitors and silibinin. Whereas the launch of first-generation PIs was a major landmark in the management of genotype 1 (GT-1)-infected patients, these drugs are inactive in most non-GT-1-infected patients. Several of these and other drugs have now reached phase II and even phase III clinical stage development. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the clinical results recently reported for the treatment for non-GT-1 HCV infection with a focus on the most promising new compounds and combinations.