Source Federal University of Bahia, Medicine and Health, Salvador, BA, Brazil.
OBJECTIVE: The individual components of metabolic syndrome may be independent predictors of mortality in patients with liver disease. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its related components in hepatitis C virus-infected patients who are not obese and do not have type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 125 patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Anthropometric data were measured according to standardized procedures. Bioimpedance analysis was performed on all patients.
RESULTS: Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 21.6% of patients. Of the subjects with metabolic syndrome, 59.3% had hypertension, 77.8% had insulin resistance, 85.2% were overweight, 48.1% had a high waist circumference, 85.2% had an increased body fat percentage, and 92.3% had an elevated waist:hip ratio. In the bivariate analysis, female sex (OR 2.58; 95% CI: 1.09-6.25), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (γGT) (OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.04-7.29), elevated fasting glucose (OR 8.05; 95% CI: 3.17-21.32), low HDL cholesterol (OR 2.80; 95% CI: 1.07-7.16), hypertriglyceridemia (OR 7.91; 95% CI: 2.88-22.71), elevated waist circumference (OR 10.33; 95% CI: 3.72-30.67), overweight (OR 11.33; 95% CI: 3.97-41.07), and increased body fat percentage (OR 8.34; 95% CI: 2.94-30.08) were independent determinants of metabolic syndrome. Using the final multivariate regression model, similar results were observed for abdominal fat (OR 9.98; 95% CI: 2.63-44.41) and total body fat percentage (OR 8.73; 95% CI: 2.33-42.34). However, metabolic syndrome risk was also high for those with blood glucose >5.55 mmol/L or HDL cholesterol <0.9 mmol/L (OR 16.69; 95% CI: 4.64-76.35; OR 7.23; 95% CI: 1.86-32.63, respectively).
CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among hepatitis C virus-infected patients without type 2 diabetes or obesity. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with hypertension, insulin resistance, increased abdominal fat, and overweight.