Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA Liver Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
Summary. Although hepatitis C (HCV) is associated with diabetes, few studies have examined pre-diabetes in this population. We aimed to evaluate factors associated with pre-diabetes in HCV-infected patients, including direct measurement of insulin action. Ninety-seven non-cirrhotic, non-diabetic and HCV-infected patients underwent clinical evaluation and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity was measured directly by steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during insulin suppression test. Early phase and total insulin secretion were determined using OGTT. Rates of pre-diabetes were as follows: 21% impaired fasting glucose (IFG), 7% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 9% combined IFG/IGT. Twelve percent of Caucasians, 50% of African Americans and 70% of Latinos had pre-diabetes (P = 0.002). Patient characteristics among the glucose metabolism categories were similar except those with combined IFG/IGT had a higher body mass index (BMI) vs normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (30 vs 26 kg/m(2) , P = 0.007) and lower LDL vs NGT and IGT (74, 104 and 112 mg/dL, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). On multivariable analysis, non-Caucasian race (OR 23.1, P = 0.003), BMI (OR 3.4, P = 0.02) and greater liver inflammation (OR 7.9, P = 0.03) predicted IFG, whereas non-Caucasian race (OR 14.8, P = 0.01) and SSPG (OR 1.1 per 10 units, P = 0.01) predicted IGT. Early and total insulin secretion adjusted for the degree of insulin resistance was decreased in pre-diabetes compared with NGT (P = 0.01 and P = 0.02, respectively). Pre-diabetes is highly prevalent among HCV-infected patients, and in some instances, coincides with host responses to the virus. In most cases, however, factors that are associated with pre-diabetes in HCV-infected patients are similar to those observed in the non-HCV population.