Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. However, HCV infection is challenging to treat, because it is underdiagnosed and undertreated. When patients receive standard therapies, sustained virological response is usually achieved in less than 50% of cases. Newer therapies improve the virological and liverrelated outcomes associated with HCV, but at an increased cost of treatment. Because the economic burden of HCV extends beyond treatment costs, clinicians, patients, and managed care professionals must understand the cost-effectiveness of HCV treatment. Improvements in adherence and the delivery of effective care can promote costeffective management due to reductions in long-term disease-related complications, such as hospitalization, liver transplantation, and death.