Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, California. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes influence response to therapy, and recently approved direct-acting antivirals are genotype-specific. Genotype distribution information can help to guide antiviral development and elucidate infection patterns. HCV genotype distributions were studied in a diverse cross-section of patients in the Northern California Kaiser Permanente health plan. Associations between genotype and race/ethnicity, age, and sex were assessed with multivariate logistic regression models. The 10,256 patients studied were median age 56 years, 62% male, 55% White non-Hispanic. Overall, 70% were genotype 1, 16% genotype 2, 12% genotype 3, 1% genotype 4, <1% genotype 5, and 1% genotype 6. Blacks (OR 4.5 [3.8-5.5]) and Asians (OR 1.2 [1.0-1.4]) were more likely to have genotype 1 than 2/3 versus non-Hispanic Whites. Women less likely had genotype 1 versus 2/3 than did men (OR 0.86 [0.78-0.94]). Versus non-Hispanic Whites, Asians (OR 0.38 [0.31-0.46]) and Blacks (OR 0.73 [0.63-0.84]) were less likely genotype1a than 1b; Hispanics (OR 1.3 [1.1-1.5]) and Native Americans (OR 1.9 [1.2-2.8]) more likely had genotype 1a than 1b. Patients age ≥65 years less likely had genotype 1a than 1b versus those age 45-64 (OR 0.34 [0.29-0.41]). The predominance of genotype 1 among all groups studied reinforces the need for new therapies targeting this genotype. Racial/ethnic variations in HCV genotype and subtype distribution must be considered in formulating new agents and novel strategies to successfully treat the diversity of hepatitis C patients.