Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variations near the IL28B gene which are strongly associated with spontaneous and treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Protective IL28B variations are strongly associated with on-treatment viral kinetics and approximately 2-fold increased sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in HCV genotype 1 and 4 patients. In HCV genotype 1 patients, IL28B variations were shown to be the strongest pre-treatment predictor of virologic response. In the treatment of HCV genotype 2 and 3 infected patients, IL28B variations play only a minor role. Preliminary data indicate that IL28B variations are also associated with treatment outcome of regimens including directly acting antiviral (DAA) agents, though their impact seems to be attenuated compared to standard treatment. Here, we review these important findings and discuss possible implications for clinical decision making in the treatment of HCV infection.