Department of Immunology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem involving chronic infection of the liver, which can cause liver disease and is linked with liver cancer. Viral innate immune evasion strategies and human genetic determinants underlie the transition of acute HCV infection to viral persistence and the support of chronic infection. Host genetic factors, such as sequence polymorphisms in IFNL3, a gene in the host interferon system, can influence both the outcome of the infection and the response to antiviral therapy. Recent insights into how HCV regulates innate immune signaling within the liver reveal a complex interaction of patient genetic background with viral and host factors of innate immune triggering and control that imparts the outcome of HCV infection and immunity.