The Kirby Institute.
The demonstration that antiretroviral treatment is effective for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission has important implications for HCV prevention. HCV therapeutic development is advancing rapidly, with effective, simplified regimens available in the near future. In contrast to HIV, HCV treatment is both curative and circumscribed in duration-2 features that hold great promise for the potential effectiveness of HCV treatment as prevention, particularly among PWID. Mathematical modeling studies have suggested that modest increases in HCV treatment uptake could lead to substantial reductions in HCV prevalence. This Viewpoint focuses on issues that are important to consider when discussing the feasibility and future requirements of HCV treatment as prevention among PWID. This includes a need to address low rates of HCV screening and treatment, a limited HCV treatment infrastructure, the cost of therapy, and the balance of health priorities at the population and individual levels.