Liver Unit, Hospital Clinic, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, Barcelona, Spain.
Liver transplantation is the only alternative for patients with end-stage liver disease. Viral hepatitis B and C are among the most common causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and a frequent indication for liver transplantation. Hepatitis B virus immunoglobulin and nucleot(s)ide analogues have facilitated the management of patients with hepatitis B who have received liver transplants and resulted in excellent long-term outcomes. On the contrary, recurrence of hepatitis C is the main cause of graft loss in most transplant programs. Current therapeutic approaches are far from optimal, because sustained virologic responses are only achieved in one-third of treated patients, and adverse effects are common and severe. However, the rapid development of direct-acting antivirals against hepatitis C virus will change the management of this disease and in a few years prevent graft infection with this virus.