BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share similar routes of transmission by sexual intercourse or drug use by parenteral injection, so coinfection is common. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of coinfection with either HCV or HBV in patients infected with HIV.
DATA SOURCES: A meta-analysis was performed to quantify HBV coinfection with HCV in HIV patients. Published studies in the English and Chinese language medical literature involving cohorts of HIV patients concomitantly infected with HBV and/or HCV were collected from the PubMed database, ISI Web of Science, the Cochrane library clinical trials registry, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) and Google Scholar, for relevant articles before November 2009. The search was conducted with the following key words: hepatitis C, HCV, hepatitis B, HBV, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, and coinfection. Data were extracted from relevant studies by two investigators. RevMan 5.0 software was used to perform the meta-analysis.
RESULTS: We identified 22 studies involving 17 664 patients. Substantial differences in the HCV rate compared to the HBV rate in HIV patients were found in the overall analysis [odds ratio (OR)=3.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-4.73]. A subgroup analysis showed similar results in a European group, but not in Asian or African groups. However, a meta-analysis between HIV+HBV+HCV+ and HIV+HBV+HCV- patients showed no significant difference (OR=0.91; 95% CI 0.57-1.45). Although subgroup analysis still lacked essential differences, different regions seemed to have different patterns.
CONCLUSIONS: HCV-HIV coinfection is more frequent than HBV-HIV coinfection overall. However, HCV infection does not affect the prevalence of HBV infection in HIV-positive patients.