Merck Sharp & Dohme, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Vaniprevir with P/R improved SVR rates over P/R alone in treatment-experienced patients with chronic HCV-genotype 1 infection, but treatment failure presents therapeutic challenges. We identified RAVs from non-cirrhotic patients failing to achieve SVR on vaniprevir-containing regimens from a dose/duration-ranging trial of triple-combination therapy.
Using population analysis, resistance sequencing was performed on all baseline samples and on samples at virologic failure in the vaniprevir arms. Longitudinal clonal analyses were performed on viral isolates from six vaniprevir recipients experiencing breakthrough viremia.
Baseline RAVs were detected in two patients subsequently experiencing virologic failure. At virologic failure, the majority of RAVs had substitutions at R155, A156, or D168. Clonal analyses identified novel double/triple variants emerging with continuing vaniprevir dosing.
RAVs were predominantly observed at R155, A156, and/or D168 during virologic failure on vaniprevir/P/R. Double/triple RAVs were identified in patients remaining viremic on triple therapy, suggesting evolution of resistance under selective pressure.