Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Improving the overall survival for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) requires development of effective systemic therapy. Despite the successful approval and extensive application of sorafenib, the prognosis for patients with advanced HCC remains poor and the benefits with sorafenib are modest. In the past few years, there have been renewed and continued interests and active research in developing other molecularly targeted agents in HCC. While the initial efforts are focusing on anti-angiogenic therapy, other agents targeting the epidermal growth factor-receptor, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met among others have entered HCC clinical trials. Combining different molecularly targeted agents or combining targeted agents with chemotherapy represent other strategies under investigation. This review will attempt to summarize the current status of other molecularly targeted agents or regimens beyond sorafenib under development in advanced HCC and the future perspectives.