The Royal Free Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre and Division of Surgery, Royal Free Hospital and UCL, , Pond Street, Hampstead, London, NW3 2QG, UK.
Transarterial therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma are considered palliative and should be offered to patients with intermediate stage multinodular disease without extra-hepatic metastases and sufficient liver reserve. They mainly include transarterial chemoembolisation and transarterial embolisation. While transarterial therapy is now a validated treatment for unresectable HCC, there is still a lack of conclusive evidence as to which type and schedule is the optimal procedure. This is mainly due to the lack of standardisation. Combining local therapies or intra-arterial therapies with systemic targeted therapies might prove more effective strategies in the future. In the present article, we review transarterial therapies and critically comment on their indications, complications and outcomes.