Source Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
In the past 10 years, many guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been published worldwide. To promote standard care for HCC, we systematically evaluated 17 current guidelines for HCC around the world, including 5 guidelines from the USA, 7 from Asia and 5 from Europe, according to the selection criteria of credibility influence and multi-faceted. After a systematic evaluation, we found that these guidelines have both similarities and differences in terms of what organizations or bodies drafted the guidelines and the approach, applicability, content and recent updates of the guidelines as well as in terms of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. The differences could be attributed to various aetiological factors, high-risk patients, health systems, health resources, medical technology, treatment choices and income levels in different countries. Besides, although the full implementation of guidelines could benefit clinicians, patients and authorities, there is still a gap between projected goals and implementation. The factors potentially influencing implementation are what organizations or bodies are drafting guidelines, content and emphasis, modification and consistency of guidelines. Comparative analysis suggested that countries pay close attention to targeted audiences, a basis in evidence, a basis in available resources, applicable patients and systematic evaluation when establishing and implementing domestic guidelines for HCC.