Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Surgery Division, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo.
A high recurrence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a significant concern. The risk factors for recurrence were analysed and the optimal surgical approaches were investigated.
The subjects comprised 280 consecutive patients with primary solitary HCC measuring ≤5 cm in diameter, who underwent curative resections. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify the risk factors for post-operative recurrence, and the clinical significance of an anatomic resection was evaluated.
Multivariate analysis identified HCV infection, a des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin level >100 mAU/ml, underlying cirrhosis, the presence of microvascular invasion, the presence of micrometastases and non-anatomic resection as being significant risk factors for post-operative recurrence. The 5-year recurrence rate was 56.7% in the anatomic resection (AR) group and 74.7% in the non-AR group. The 5-year survival rate was 82.2% in the AR group and 71.9% in the non-AR group. Local recurrence within the same segment was observed in 25% of the patients of the non-AR group. The prognostic superiority of AR was confirmed only in patients with histopathological evidence of microvascular invasion and/or micrometastases, and in patients having a solitary HCC measuring 2 to 5 cm in diameter.
Anatomic resection may decrease local recurrence and improve the surgical outcomes in solitary HCC measuring 2 to 5 cm in diameter.