Department of Radiology, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave Levy Place, New York, NY, 10129, USA.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary hepatic malignancy, and usually develops in the setting of liver cirrhosis. The early diagnosis of HCC is essential as curative treatment (including surgical resection and liver transplantation) improves survival. While screening and surveillance are traditionally performed with ultrasound, reported accuracies of ultrasound vary greatly, and poor sensitivity for small nodules is a uniformly recognized concern. Advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including multidetector technology and fast breath hold sequences now allow dynamic multiphasic enhanced imaging of the liver with excellent spatial and temporal resolution, holding much promise for improved HCC detection.