Source Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infection can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and most likely non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). No studies have compared the risk of these cancers between patients with chronic and cleared HCV-infection. The aim of this study was to estimate the 10-year risk of HCC and NHL in HCV-infected patients and to compare the risk of these cancers between HCV-infected patients and the general population in Denmark and between patients with chronic and cleared HCV-infection. Nationwide cohorts were used: 11,975 HCV-infected patients in the DANVIR cohort and 71,850 individuals from an age- and gender-matched general population cohort. Within DANVIR, 4,158 patients with chronic HCV-infection and 2,427 patients with cleared HCV-infection were studied. The 10-year risks of HCC and NHL in HCV-infected patients were 1.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.8 - 1.3%) and 0.1% (95% CI: 0.1 - 0.2%), respectively. Compared to the general population, HCV-infected patients had a 62.91 -fold increased risk of HCC (95% CI: 28.99 - 136.52), a 29.97 -fold increased risk of NHL during the first year of follow-up (95% CI: 6.08 - 147.84), and a 1.26-fold increased risk of NHL after the first year (95% CI: 0.36 - 4.41). Chronic HCV-infection was associated with a 4.71-fold increased risk of HCC (95% CI: 1.67 - 13.32) compared to cleared HCV-infection; 5 and 0 events of NHL occurred in patients with chronic and cleared HCV-infection, respectively. HCC-risk is increased substantially in HCV-infected patients compared to the general population. Chronic as opposed to cleared HCV-infection increases the risk of HCC and perhaps NHL.