Source Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Division of Interventional Ultrasound, The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou, 510080, China, email@example.com.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term outcomes of percutaneous ablation (PA) of very early-stage hepatocellulcar carcinoma (HCC) with a multimodal strategy.
METHODS: Written informed consent was obtained from all patients before treatment. Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) was performed for tumors in unfavorable locations; microwave ablation (MWA) was performed for tumors in favorable positions without a capsule; and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was carried out in favorable tumors with a capsule. Since 2003, these advanced PA techniques have been used.
RESULTS: Eighty-three patients with very early HCC were treated with PA, including 33 with PEI, 19 with MWA, and 31 with RFA. Initial complete response (CR) was achieved in 79 patients (95%). The mean follow-up period was 45 ± 27 months (range, 24-155 months). Late treatment failure was observed in eight patients (10%), which was significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.046) and technique advancements (P = 0.009). Sustained CR was achieved in 51 patients (61%) at the end of follow-up. Major complications occurred in two patients (2%). The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 6-year disease-free survival rates were 87%, 69%, 62%, and 59%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 7-year overall survival rates were 94%, 88%, 78%, and 74%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of very early-stage HCC using a multimodal strategy tailored to tumor characteristics achieves equivalent initial CR rates and long-term survival rates compared to surgical resection.