Angiogenesis is a crucial component of tumor growth and metastasis. Targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway represents therapeutic potentials for treating cancer. To date, 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved agents targeting angiogenesis have been developed, bevacizumab, sunitinib, and sorafenib. However, no validated biomarkers are available to identify those patients who are likely to benefit from antiangiogenesis therapy. Molecular biomarker research in antiangiogenesis inhibition is an actively growing field. Although current data are extremely promising, it is still uncertain which biomarker(s) can reliably predict their efficacy. With increasing numbers of inhibitors being developed, the need for biomarkers is more critical than ever. This review will focus on translational research that strives to identify molecular biomarkers (tissue, circulating and genomic) for approved antiangiogenesis therapies that can indicate benefit, resistance, and toxicity.