Objective: Tumor recurrence after liver resection occurs in the majority of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was conducted to clarify the safety and effectiveness of repeated liver resection as a curative option for intrahepatic HCC recurrence.
Patients and methods Between July 1990 and January 2009, 483 patients underwent 514 curative hepatic resections for HCC in our institution. Among this collective, 27 patients underwent 31 repeated resections due to recurrent HCC (27 second resections, 3 third resections and 1 forth resection). The outcome of these patients was retrospectively reviewed using a prospective database.
Results: Perioperative morbidity and mortality was 11% (3 of 27) and 0%. Six patients showed multiple liver lesions, 23 underwent minor liver resections (<3 segments) and 5 patients underwent major resections (3 and more segments). The majority of the patients showed no signs of chronic liver disease (16 of 27). The median tumor free margin was 1,5 mm (range: 0 to 20 mm). The median tumor diameter was 40 mm (range: 10 to 165 mm). Tumor dedifferentiations at time of tumor recurrence were not observed. The 1-, 3- and 5-year overall survival rates after second liver resection were 96%, 70% and 42%.
Conclusions: Repeated liver resection is a valid and safe curative therapy option for recurrent HCC and results in significant prolongation of survival in comparison to interventional treatment strategies in selected patients. However, due to impaired liver function, multifocal intrahepatic or extrahepatic recurrence repeated resection is only feasible in a minority of patients.