Department of Radiology, Saint-Antoine Hospital, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most common cancer throughout the world. It is almost exclusively arterially vascularized, unlike the vascularization of the liver, which has a dual supply with a portal component of 75 to 80% and an arterial component of 20 to 25%. The reference treatment for intermediary stages of the Barcelona (B) classification is hepatic artery chemoembolization. The aim of chemoembolization is to inject the tumor chemotherapy into the artery and then to embolize the artery (or arteries), which supply the tumor. For this, knowledge of the anatomy of the hepatic artery is essential. Approximately 55% of the patients belong to the modal distribution, although numerous anatomical variants exist and must be recognized. In addition, primarily non-hepatic arteries may contribute to the vascularization of some hepatocellular carcinomas. Furthermore, new arterial supplies can be recruited by tumors after surgical or chemoembolization treatments. The aim of this article is to describe the different arteries, which may vascularize hepatocellular carcinomas. These arteries must be looked for, recognized, and reported by the radiologist on cross-section examinations in the pre-treatment assessment.