Academic Radiation Oncology Department & University Lille II, CLCC Oscar Lambret, Lille, France.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been evaluated in several recent studies. The CyberKnife(®) is an SBRT system that allows for real-time tracking of the tumor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors for local control and overall survival following this treatment.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
75 patients with 96 liver-confined HCC were treated with SBRT at the Oscar Lambret Comprehensive Cancer Center. Fiducials were implanted in the liver before treatment and were used as markers to track the lesion's movement. Treatment response was scored according to RECIST v1.1. Local control and overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan and Meier method. A stepwise multivariate analysis (Cox regression) of prognostic factors was performed for local control and overall survival.
There were 67 patients with Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) Class A and eight patients with CTP Class B. Treatment was administered in three sessions. A total dose of 40-45 Gy to the 80% isodose line was delivered. The median follow-up was 10 months (range, 3-49 months). The local control rate was 89.8% at 1 and 2 years. Overall survival was 78.5% and 50.4% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Toxicity mainly consisted of grade 1 and grade 2 events. Higher alpha-fetoprotein (aFP) levels were associated with less favorable local control (HR=1.001; 95% CI [1.000, 1.002]; p=0.0063). A higher dose was associated with better local control (HR=0.866; 95% CI [0.753, 0.996]; p=0.0441). A Child-Pugh score higher than 5 was associated with worse overall survival (HR= 3.413; 95% CI [1.235, 9.435]; p=0.018).
SBRT affords good local tumor control and higher overall survival rates than other historical controls (best supportive care or sorafenib). High aFP levels were associated with lesser local control, but a higher treatment dose improved local control.