R & D Department, Biotechnology Research Center, PO Box (14), 23 July Street, Industrial Zone, New Damietta 34517, Egypt.
A simple scoring system is needed to discriminate HCC from patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). The simplest score would be one that requires only variables that can be documented simply from routine laboratory tests without the need for sophisticated tests.
Data from the estimation group (1351 patients) and the validation group (2208 patients) were retrospectively analysed. Liver fibrosis-negative control and liver cirrhosis were compared with HCC. Area under ROC curve (AUC) were used to develop HCC-α-fetoprotein-routine test (HCC-ART).
Hepatocellular carcinoma-AFP-routine test showed diagnostic accuracy for liver cirrhosis vs HCC with ROC curves of 0.99%, sensitivity of 97%, and specificity of 96% in the estimation, and 0.95%, 90%, and 83%, respectively, in the validation. Sensitivity (97%) and specificity (100%) were obtained to discriminate HCC from liver fibrosis. Area under curve for AFP at 400 U l(-1) was 0.70, sensitivity was 41%, and specificity was 99% in the estimation, and 0.77%, 54%, and 99%, respectively, in the validation. The AUC for HCC-ART in HCC with single tumour, absent vascular invasion, size <2 cm and CLIP score (0-1) were 0.95, 0.93, 0.86, 0.87, respectively, compared with 0.72, 0.71, 0.71, 0.50, respectively, for AFP.
Hepatocellular carcinoma-AFP-routine test could increase the accuracy of HCC screening and surveillances and could be used worldwide without extra efforts.