1Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226-3596, USA.
2Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 West Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53226-3596, USA. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article summarizes the current literature in treatment of unresectable biliary tract and primary liver tumors. Locoregional therapies including radiofrequency ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryoablation, microwave ablation, transarterial chemoembolization, hepatic artery infusion, radioembolization (90Y), and bland embolization are discussed and clinical trials compared. Palliative strategies including surgical, percutaneous, and endoscopic techniques to decompress the biliary system and improve symptoms are also summarized. Systemic chemotherapy and sorafenib used in conjunction with locoregional therapies or as sole therapeutic options are discussed.