1Department of Medicine, Center for Liver Diseases, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church, VA, USA; Betty and Guy Beatty Center for Integrated Research, Inova Health System, Falls Church, VA, USA.
Type 2 diabetes is known to negatively impact the outcome of chronic liver disease.
To evaluate the impact of diabetes on the outcomes of liver transplants (LT).
Study cohort included adults (>18 years) who received LT in the US between 1994 and 2013 (The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients). Pre- and post-transplant diabetes was recorded in patients with mortality follow-up.
We included 85 194 liver transplant recipients. Of those, 11.2% had history of pre-transplant diabetes. The most common indications for liver transplant were hepatitis C (36.4%), alcohol-related liver disease (20.6%), primary liver malignancy of unspecified aetiology (14.7%), cryptogenic cirrhosis (8.0%), hepatitis B (4.6%) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (3.9%). A total of 96.5% transplants were from deceased donors, and 7.9% donors had history of diabetes. During an average 6.5 years of follow-up, 31.3% recipients died and 8.8% had a graft failure. In multivariate survival analysis [at least 5 years of cohort follow-up (N = 35 870)], after adjustment for age, ethnicity, insurance type, history of chronic diseases, HCV infection and noncompliance, independent predictors of recipient mortality included the presence of pre-transplant diabetes [adjusted hazard ratio (95%CI) = 1.21 (1.12-1.30)] and developing diabetes post-transplant [1.06 (1.02-1.11)]. Donor's history of diabetes was also independently associated with higher mortality [1.10 (1.02-1.19)]. Furthermore, donor's history of diabetes was also associated with an increased the risk of liver graft failure [1.35 (1.24-1.47)].
Presence of type 2 diabetes pre- and post-transplant, as well as presence of type 2 diabetes in the donors, are all associated with an increased risk of adverse post-transplant outcomes.