Wei Yi, Min Liu, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Beijing Ditan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100015, China.
To evaluate the safety of lamivudine (LAM) treatment for chronic hepatitis B in early pregnancy.
A total of 92 pregnant women who received LAM treatment either before pregnancy or in early pregnancy were enrolled in this study. All of the pregnant women volunteered to take lamivudine during pregnancy and were not co-infected with hepatitis C virus, human immunodeﬁciency virus, cytomegalovirus, or other viruses. All infants received passive-active immunoprophylaxis with 200 IU hepatitis B immunoglobulin and three doses of 10 μg hepatitis B vaccines (0-1-6 mo) according to the guidelines for the prevention and treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Adverse events were observed throughout the entire pregnancy and perinatal period, and the effectiveness of lamivudine treatment for blocking mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) was evaluated. All adverse events in mothers and infants during pregnancy and the perinatal period and the HBV mother-to-infant transmission blocking rate were compared with the literature.
Among the 92 pregnant women, spontaneous abortions occurred in 11 cases, while 3 mothers had a second pregnancy after the initial abortion; 72 mothers delivered 73 live infants, of whom 68 infants were followed up for no less than 6 mo, and 12 mothers were still pregnant. During pregnancy, the main maternal adverse events were vaginitis (12/72, 16.7%), spontaneous abortion (11/95, 11.6%), and gestational diabetes (6/72, 8.3%); only one case had 1-2 degree elevation of the creatine kinase level (195 U/L). During the perinatal period, the main maternal adverse events were premature rupture of the membranes (8/72, 11.1%), preterm delivery (5/72, 6.9%), and meconium staining of the amniotic fluid (4/72, 5.6%). In addition, 2 infants were found to have congenital abnormalities; 1 had a scalp hemangioma that did not change in size until 7 mo, and the other had early cerebral palsy, but with rehabilitation training, the infant's motor functions became totally normal at 2 years of age. The incidence of adverse events among the mothers or abnormalities in the infants was not higher than that of normal mothers or HBV-infected mothers who did not receive lamivudine treatment. In only 2 cases, mother-to-infant transmission blocking failed; the blocking rate was 97.1% (66/68), which was higher than has been previously reported.
Lamivudine treatment is safe for chronic HBV-infected pregnant mothers and their fetuses with a gestational age of less than 12 wk or throughout the entire pregnancy.