Source Massimo Marignani, Elia Gigante, Paola Begini, Michela di Fonzo, Ilaria Deli, Sara Gallina, Gianfranco Delle Fave, Digestive and Liver Disease Department, School of Medicine and Psychology University "Sapienza", Azienda Ospedaliera S. Andrea, Via Grottarossa, 1035-1039, 00189 Rome, Italy.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects a large part of the world population. Within the different virological HBV categories that have been identified, patients with occult HBV infection represent a peculiar group. These individuals harbor a replication competent virus, inhibited in its replicative function. Accordingly, cases of reactivations have been observed in immunosuppressed individuals who lose immunological control over the infection. Patients with hematological malignancies (HM) are treated with intense myelo- and immunosuppressive chemotherapy regimens which favor HBV reactivation. This event can have severe consequences, such as hepatitis flare, hepatic failure and even death. In addition, it can lead to delays or interruptions of curative treatments, resulting in a decreased disease free and overall survival. In this review, we will examine the event of HBV reactivation in patients with signs of resolved HBV infection undergoing treatment for HM and propose possible management strategies.