State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a well-known hepadnavirus with a double-stranded circular DNA genome. Although HBV was first described approximately 50 years ago, the precise mechanisms of HBV infection and effective therapeutic strategies remain unclear. Here, we focus on summarizing the complicated mechanisms of HBV replication and infection, as well as genomic factors and epigenetic regulation. Additionally, we discuss in vivo models of HBV, as well as diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic drugs for HBV. Together, the data in this 50-year review may provide new clues to elucidate molecular mechanisms of HBV pathogenesis and shed new light on the future HBV therapies.