Division of Hepatogastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.
Background/Aims: The independent and interactive effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) factors on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic HBV/HCV dually-infected patients remain unclear. Methods: In a cross-sectional and case-controlled study, the HBV and HCV loads and genotypes and the sequences of pre-S and precore/core promoter regions were determined in 146 HCC patients and 167 chronic carriers with HBV/HCV dual infection. Results: Age (odds ratio (OR) 1.1), male sex (OR 2.3), pre-S deletion (OR 5.0), A1762T/G1764A mutant (OR 2.5), HCV genotype-1 (OR 2.4) and platelet count <15 × 10(4)/μl (OR 1.9) were independently associated with HCC by stepwise logistic regression analysis. Patients with combined HBV mutations (pre-S deletion and A1762T/G1764A mutant) and HCV genotype-1 had a 39-fold increased risk of developing HCC compared to those with A1762T/G1764A and pre-S wild-type strains and HCV genotype non-1. In the nested case-control study, patients with HCC had a higher HBV DNA level (p < 0.001), a higher frequency of pre-S deletion (p < 0.001) and A1762T/G1764A mutant (p = 0.005), a lower HCV RNA level (p = 0.012) and a higher prevalence of HCV genotype-1 (p = 0.002) than those without. Conclusions: Pre-S deletion, A1762T/G1764A mutation and HCV genotype-1 are important in hepatocarcinogenesis in chronic HBV/HCV dual infection.