Objective: The aim of the current study is to verify the potential association between multiple myeloma (MM) and HBV/HCV infection.
Methods: This retrospective case control trial included 299 MM patients and 299 patients with acute leukemia (AL). Age and sex were matched between the two groups.
Results: The HBsAg positivity rate was significantly higher in the MM group (19.4% vs. 12.0% in AL patients; p=0.014). The rate of HCV infection did not differ between the two groups. The incidence of cirrhosis was significantly higher in the HBsAg+ patients (17.2% vs. 6.2% in HBsAg- patients; p=0.011). The rate of HEV infection was also significantly higher in HBsAg+ patients (5.2% vs. 0.4% in HBsAg- patients; p=0.025). Hepatic damage was much more common in HBsAg+ patients than in HBsAg- patients both prior to (22.4% vs. 8.7%; p=0.006) and during chemotherapy for MM (67.2% vs. 28.6%; p<0.001). ISS stage, HBsAg+, the use of bortezomib and thalidomide and ASCT were significant factors for overall survival in univariate analysis. In the COX regression analysis, ISS stage (p=0.027), HBsAg+ (p=0.042) and the use of thalidomide (p=0.001) showed a significant effect on OS of these patients.
Conclusion: The prevalence of HBV infection is higher in MM patients than in subjects with other hematological malignancies such as AL. Hepatic injury is more common in MM patients with HBV infection, particularly during chemotherapeutic treatment. HBsAg-positive may be a prognosis factor in MM patients in HBV endemic areas.