Division of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 123 Ta Pei Road, Niao Sung District, Kaohsiung, 833, Taiwan, firstname.lastname@example.org.
BACKGROUND: Early prediction of lamivudine (LAM) response by individualized monitoring of serum HBV DNA like roadmap concept, and investigation of the outcome after LAM discontinuation in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
METHODS: We conducted a study on 19 RTRs with HBV infection receiving LAM treatment for 2 years from 2004 to 2007. HBV DNA level was assessed at baseline, 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks after treatment. Risk factors of tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate (YMDD) mutation on treatment and relapse rate of HBV after LAM discontinuation were analyzed.
RESULTS: HBV DNA levels became undetectable in 32, 37, 63, and 53% of patients after 12, 24, 52, and 104 weeks of LAM treatment, respectively. Overall, three (16%) and five (33%) patients were detected with YMDD mutations at week 52 and 104, respectively. In the concept of roadmap, of the seven patients with inadequate virologic response (IAVR) at week 24, five had YMDD mutations. There was no significant association of YMDD mutations with age, gender, genotype, cirrhosis, HBeAg status, baseline HBV DNA, precore/core promoter mutations, and primary response, except IAVR at week 24 (P = 0.001). The relapse rate of HBV after LAM discontinuation was high (75%) during a median follow-up of 65 weeks.
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of LAM resistance in RTRs is similar to immunocompetent CHB patients in a 2-year therapy. By roadmap concept, RTRs with IAVR require a change in therapy to prevent viral resistance. Relapse after LAM withdrawal is frequent. Long-term antiviral therapy is crucial for immunosuppressed patients.