Department of Infectious Diseases and Hepatology, Shanghai 7th People's Hospital, China.
Objective We aimed to compare the cumulative efficacy and resistance of ADV monotherapy, ADV add-on LAM (ADV + LAM), ADV and ETV (ADV + ETV) combination therapy in LAM-resistant patients. Methods Ninety-one adult CHB patients with LAM-resistance mutations (YMDD) were identified. Of these 91, 29 patients were treated with ADV monotherapy, 30 were treated with ADV + LAM and 32 were treated with ADV + ETV combination therapy, for at least 24 months. Results The mean serum HBV-DNA decreases from baseline at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months were -3.23, -4.41, -5.32, and -5.58 log10
IU/mL in the ADV + ETV combination therapy groups, respectively; the most significant among the three treatment groups (p<0.01). The rate of HBV-DNA PCR undetectability (<60 IU/mL) at 6 months in ADV + ETV combination therapy was 78.1%; also the most significant among the three treatment groups (p=0.024). Viral breakthrough and genotypic mutations were detected in 8 (27.6%) and 4 (13.3%) patients in the ADV monotherapy and ADV+LAM therapy groups, respectively; whereas no case of viral breakthrough and genotypic resistance was detected in the ADV+ETV combination therapy group after 24 months (p<0.05). Conclusion ADV + ETV combination therapy demonstrated faster and significantly greater suppression of HBV DNA compared with ADV add-on LAM combination therapy for patients with LAM-resistance mutations. ADV + ETV was superior to ADV + LAM in achieving initial virological response and long-term suppression activity against HBV. ADV + ETV combination therapy was the most effective to refrain from selecting HBV strains with cross-resistance to three NAs (LAM, ADV and ETV) for LAM-resistance patients.