Department of Transplant Medicine, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany. email@example.com.
Hepatitis B immune globulin-free therapeutic regimens with a nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) or NUC combinations after liver transplantation (LT) are currently being investigated for their efficacy and safety as HBV re-infection prophylaxis in clinical studies. Recurrence rates differ among these studies as most of them are limited by a non-randomised study design, small sample size, lack of long-term data and varying time intervals for the switch from combined to purely virostatic prophylaxis. Post-transplant pre-emptive antiviral therapy with pegylated IFN and ribavirin is associated with low sustained virological response rates and was found to have no advantage over treatment of manifest HCV re-infection. Safety and efficacy of triple antiviral therapy including boceprevir or telaprevir in patients with manifest HCV re-infection are currently under investigation in clinical trials. Relevant drug interactions have been shown to occur during calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) and concomitant triple antiviral therapy, which vary with type of CNI and choice of HCV protease inhibitor. Newer direct-acting antivirals with lower or minimal toxicity, when used in combination with immunosuppressives, are worthy of further study in LT patients. This review focuses on hot topics in the management of hepatitis B and C patients before and after LT and offers a critical summarised selection of the corresponding relevant studies published in the current literature or presented at recent liver congresses.