Therapy of chronic hepatitis B is currently based on two different strategies: (a) a finite course of treatment with pegylated interferon aimed to induce a sustained virological response that is maintained long-term after therapy withdrawal and (b) an indefinite treatment with oral anti-HBV nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NUCs) aimed to achieve long-term complete suppression of HBV replication. The first strategy is typically used in patients with less advanced liver disease, with high ALT and no too high HBV-DNA and is particularly successful in the younger patients and in those infected with HBV genotype A or B. The suppressive strategy is instead typically adopted for patients with more advanced liver disease, and for those who have failed or cannot tolerate interferon therapy. Recently, following the implementation of third generation NUCs with high antiviral potency and barrier to resistance, the indication of oral therapy has gained credibility and indication, although most guidelines still recommend to start these drugs only in the presence of significant and progressive liver disease. This review summarises the recent Recommendations produced for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, with particular focus on the 2010 Italian Guidelines.