Source Department of Hepatology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, USA.
BACKGROUND: Small studies have suggested that nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy (NAT) with reduced hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) duration may be efficacious in preventing post-liver transplantation (LT) HBV recurrence.
OBJECTIVES: This larger study evaluates the use of NAT with short term (< 6 mo) or no HBIG for prevention of post-LT HBV recurrence.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All HBV patients undergoing LT at a university transplant center between 2002 and 2007 were identified retrospectively. Patient demographics, medication regimen, and adverse events were noted. The primary endpoint was HBV recurrence and secondary endpoints were graft and patient survival.
RESULTS: 28 study patients were identified. Of these 28 patients, 4 (14%) received no HBIG, 6 (22%) received only inpatient HBIG, and 18 (64%) received inpatient HBIG and outpatient HBIG. 16 of the 28 patients (57%) received combination NAT and 12 patients (43%) received single NAT. At a median time of 15.5 months (range 9-24 months) post-LT, 4 of the 28 patients (14%) had recurrent HBV. Of those patients with recurrent HBV, 3 received both inpatient and outpatient HBIG and 1 received no HBIG. All cases of HBV recurrence were associated with noncompliance.
CONCLUSIONS: NAT with short-term or no HBIG was efficacious and safe in preventing post-LT HBV. All compliant patients were HBV-free, including 9 patients who received no HBIG or only inpatient HBIG. Additional studies using NAT without HBIG appear justified.