Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
Despite appropriate immunoprophylaxis, up to 10 % of infants born to highly viremic hepatitis B virus (HBV-DNA ≥ 7 log IU/mL) mothers are infected with HBV. Use of TDF to prevent vertical transmission (VT) by such mothers has not been evaluated.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of TDF in preventing VT from highly viremic HBV-infected mothers.
Data were collected retrospectively from HBV mono-infected, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive, pregnant women between 6/2008 and 11/2010. Cases enrolled were HBV mono-infected mothers who received TDF (300 mg orally once a day) in the third trimester. Those with pregnancy complications or an abnormal fetus on sonography were excluded from use of TDF. All infants received hepatitis B immunoglobulin and vaccination at birth and subsequently.
Eleven Asian mothers received TDF at the median gestational age of 29 (28-32) weeks and the median duration of TDF use before delivery was 10 (7-12) weeks. A significant reduction in serum HBV-DNA was achieved at delivery compared with baseline (mean 5.25 ± 1.79 vs. 8.87 ± 0.45 log(10) copies/mL, respectively; p < 0.01). Three had serum ALT levels more than 1.5 times the upper limit of normal and two of these normalized before delivery. The 11 infants were born with no obstetric complication or birth defects. Five infants were breastfed. All infants were hepatitis B surface antigen negative 28-36 weeks after birth.
Our preliminary data suggest that TDF use in the third trimester is safe, and effectively prevents VT of HBV from high viremic HBeAg-positive mothers.